Confocal Microscopy Laboratory

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Confocal Microscopy Laboratory

Laboratory provides research services that are focused primarily on analysis of biological processes in living cells and tissues using fluorescence microscopy. It is equipped with confocal microscopes, which are well suited for 3D analysis of stained specimens and live imaging of cells and tissues in vivo or in culture. Research activities in the laboratory concentrate on how cellular physiology is affected by various conditions and are aimed at discovery and development of new bio-active substances and diagnostic tests.



High-resolution fluorescence analysis of cultured cells and tissue sections

morphometry, evaluation of intracellular distribution of structures of interest, 3D reconstruction, co-localization assays

Live microscopic analysis of cells and tissues in vivo and in culture

longitudinal analysis of morphology, migration studies of cells and intracellular structures in real time in controlled environment (temperature, humidity, CO2 and O2), production of reactive oxygen species with CellROX Green fluorescent probe

Material surface analysis with laser reflectance

Microscopic high-throughput screening

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of microscopic images

Training in confocal microscopy and image analysis


  • Inverted stand
  • Spinning disk module Yokogawa CSU-X1A 5000
  • Lasers: 405, 488, 561, 639 nm
  • Dual camera setup: EMCCD QImaging Rolera EM-C2
  • Objectives: 10x (NA 0.30), 20x (NA 0.4 LD), 25x (NA 0.80 W), 40x (NA 0.6 LD; NA 1.20 W; NA 1.4 Oil), 63x (NA 1.20 W; NA 1.4 Oil), 100x (NA 1.46 Oil)
  • Motorized stage with Definite Focus
  • Incubator XLmulti S1 and heating insert for 96-well plates
  • Temperature and O2/CO2 controller
  • DirectFRAP module for FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching)



  • Upright stand
  • Conventional and resonant (8 kHz) scanner
  • VIS lasers: 488, 552, 638 nm
  • IR laser: femtosecond pulsed Chameleon Vision II, tuning range: 680-1080 nm
  • Detectors: 3 internal PMT, 4 external NDD-PMT
  • Objectives: 10x (NA 0,40), 20x (NA 0,75), 25x (NA 0,95 W), 40x (NA 1,10 W; NA 1,3 Oil), 63x (NA 1,4 Oil)
  • Motorized stage
  • Temperature controller and heating insert for Petri dishes
  • Set-up for intravital imaging of mice



  • Imaris 8 (Bitplane)
  • Huygens Professional (SVI)
  • Image-Pro Premier (Media Cybernetics)

Grzegorz Chodaczek, PhD – Head of the Laboratory

Katarzyna Mikołajewicz, M.Sc. – PhD student

Monika Toporkiewicz, PhD – Research Engineer

Michał Majkowski, PhD – Research Engineer

OPUS 8: Constitutive autoreactivity of gamma-delta T cells as a beneficial mechanism of epidermal barrier surveillance
project leader – Grzegorz Chodaczek, grant from National Science Centre, Poland, funding period 09.2015-09.2019

SONATA BIS 4: Multiparameter characterization of surveillance of reproductive epithelium homeostasis by gamma-delta T cells that includes high resolution intravital microscopy
project leader – Grzegorz Chodaczek, grant from National Science Centre, Poland, funding period 07.2015-07.2020

  1. Motola M, Dworniczek E, Satrapinskyy L, Chodaczek G, Grzesiak J, Gregor M, Plecenik T, Nowicka J, Plesch G. UV light-induced photocatalytic, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm performance of anodic TiO2 nanotube layers prepared on titanium mesh and Ti sputtered on silicon. Chem. Pap. 2018.
  2. Majkowski M, Laszkiewicz A, Sniezewski L, Grzmil P, Pawlicka B, Tomczyk I, Michniewicz M, Kapusniak V, Janik S, Chodaczek G, Cebrat M. Lack of NWC protein (c11orf74 homolog) in murine spermatogenesis results in reduced sperm competitiveness and impaired ability to fertilize egg cells in vitro. PLoS One. 2018 Dec 6;13(12):e0208649.
  3. Żywicka A, Junka AF, Szymczyk P, Chodaczek G, Grzesiak J, Sedghizadeh PP, Fijałkowski K. Bacterial cellulose yield increased over 500% by supplementation of medium with vegetable oil. Carbohydr Polym. 2018 Nov 1;199:294-303.
  4. Dydak K, Junka A, Szymczyk P, Chodaczek G, Toporkiewicz M, Fijałkowski K, Dudek B, Bartoszewicz M. Development and biological evaluation of Ti6Al7Nb scaffold implants coated with gentamycin-saturated bacterial cellulose biomaterial. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 24;13(10):e0205205. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205205
  5. Weżgowiec J, Kulbacka J, Saczko J, Rossowska J, Chodaczek G, Kotulska M. Biological effects in photodynamic treatment combined with electropermeabilization in wild and drug resistant breast cancer cells. Bioelectrochemistry. 2018 Oct;123:9-18. doi:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2018.04.008
  6. Mikolajewicz K, Chodaczek G. Going deeper: three-dimensional study of γδ T cells in mouse reproductive tract using tissue clearing methods. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2018 Sep 14.
  7. Zygmunt BM, Węgrzyn A, Gajska W, Yevsa T, Chodaczek G, Guzmán CA. Mannose Metabolism Is Essential for Th1 Cell Differentiation and IFN-γ Production. J Immunol. 2018 Jul 20.
  8. Doskocz J, Drabik D, Chodaczek G, Przybyło M, Langner M. Statistical Analysis of Bending Rigidity Coefficient Determined Using Fluorescence-Based Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy. J Membr Biol. 2018 Jun 1.
  9. Kupczyk P, Reich A, Gajda M, Hołysz M, Wysokińska E, Paprocka M, Nevozhay D, Chodaczek G, Jagodziński PP, Ziółkowski P, Szepietowski JC. UCHL1/PGP 9.5 Dynamic in Neuro-Immune-Cutaneous Milieu: Focusing on Axonal Nerve Terminals and Epidermal Keratinocytes in Psoriatic Itch. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Jul 25;2018:7489316.
  10. Chodaczek G, Toporkiewicz M, Zal MA, Zal T (2018) Epidermal T Cell Dendrites Serve as Conduits for Bidirectional Trafficking of Granular Cargo. Front. Immunol. 2018 June 22;9:1430. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01430.
  11. Orlowski P, Tomaszewska E, Ranoszek-Soliwoda K, Gniadek M, Labedz O, Malewski T, Nowakowska J, Chodaczek G, Celichowski G, Grobelny J, Krzyzowska M. Tannic acid-modified silver and gold nanoparticles as novel stimulators of dendritic cells activation. Front. Immunol. 2018 May 22;9:1115. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01115.
  12. Christoffersson G, Chodaczek G, Ratliff SS, Coppieters K, von Herrath MG. Suppression of diabetes by accumulation of non-islet-specific CD8+ effector T cells in pancreatic islets. Sci Immunol. 2018 Mar 23;3(21). pii: eaam6533. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aam6533.
  13. Borek A, Sokolowska-Wedzina A, Chodaczek G, Otlewski J. Generation of high-affinity, internalizing anti-FGFR2 single-chain variable antibody fragment fused with Fc for targeting gastrointestinal cancers. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 8;13(2):e0192194.
  14. Suchanski J, Tejchman A, Zacharski M, Piotrowska A, Grzegrzolka J, Chodaczek G, Nowinska K, Rys J, Dziegiel P, Kieda C, Ugorski M. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression. PLoS One. 2017 Sep 22;12(9):e0184970.
  15. Sokolowska-Wedzina A, Chodaczek G, Chudzian J, Borek A, Zakrzewska M, Otlewski J. High-Affinity Internalizing Human scFv-Fc Antibody for Targeting FGFR1-overexpressing Lung Cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2017 Aug;15(8):1040-1050.
  16. Bazylińska U, Pietkiewicz J, Rossowska J, Chodaczek G, Gamian A, Wilk KA. Polyelectrolyte Oil-Core Nanocarriers for Localized and Sustained Delivery of Daunorubicin to Colon Carcinoma MC38 Cells: The Case of Polysaccharide Multilayer Film in Relation to PEG-ylated Shell. Macromol Biosci. 2017 Jan 17. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201600356.
  17. Junka A, Fijałkowski K, Zabek A, Mikołajewicz K, Chodaczek G, Szymczyk P, Smutnicka D, Zywicka A, Sedghizadehf PP, Dziadas M, Młynarz P, Bartoszewicz M. Correlation between type of alkali rinsing, cytotoxicity of bio-nanocellulose and presence of metabolites within cellulose membranes. Carbohydr Polym. 2017; 157:371-379.
  18. Bzdzion L, Krezel H, Wrzeszcz K, Grzegorek I, Nowinska K, Chodaczek G, Swietnicki W. Design of small molecule inhibitors of type III secretion system ATPase EscN from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Acta Biochim Pol. 2017;64(1):49-63. doi: 10.18388/abp.2016_1265.
  19. Drabik D, Przybyło M, Chodaczek G, Iglič A, Langner M. The modified fluorescence based vesicle fluctuation spectroscopy technique for determination of lipid bilayer bending properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Nov 23;1858(2):244-252.
  20. Hanna RN, Chodaczek G, Hedrick CC. In vivo Imaging of Tumor and Immune Cell Interactions in the Lung. Bio Protoc. 2016 Oct 20;6(20). pii: e1973. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.1973.
  21. Shaked I, Hanna RN, Shaked H, Chodaczek G, Nowyhed HN, Tweet G, Tacke R, Basat AB, Mikulski Z, Togher S, Miller J, Blatchley A, Salek-Ardakani S, Darvas M, Kaikkonen MU, Thomas GD, Lai-Wing-Sun S, Rezk A, Bar-Or A, Glass CK, Bandukwala H, Hedrick CC. Transcription factor Nr4a1 couples sympathetic and inflammatory cues in CNS-recruited macrophages to limit neuroinflammation. Nat Immunol. 2015; 16(12):1228-34.
  22. Hanna RN, Cekic C, Sag D, Tacke R, Thomas GD, Nowyhed H, Herrley E, Rasquinha N, McArdle S, Wu R, Peluso E, Metzger D, Ichinose H, Shaked I, Chodaczek G, Biswas SK, Hedrick CC. Patrolling monocytes control tumor metastasis to the lung. Science. 2015; 350(6263):985-90.
  23. McArdle S, Chodaczek G, Ray N, Ley K. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries. J Biomed Opt. 2015; 20(2):26005.
  24. Mikulski Z, Johnson R, Shaked I, Kim G, Nowyhed H, Goodman W, Chodaczek G, Pizarro TT, Cominelli F, Ley K. SAMP1/YitFc mice develop ileitis via loss of CCL21 and defects in dendritic cell migration. Gastroenterology 2015; 148(4):783-793.e5.
  25. Vicente-Suarez I, Larange A, Reardon C, Matho M, Feau S, Chodaczek G, Park Y, Obata Y, Gold R, Wang-Zhu Y, Lena C, Zajonc DM, Schoenberger SP, Kronenberg M, Cheroutre H. Unique lamina propria stromal cells imprint the functional phenotype of mucosal dendritic cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2015; 8(1):141-51.
  26. Verma S, Wang Q, Chodaczek G, Benedict CA. Lymphoid tissue stromal cells coordinate innate defense to cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2013; 87(11):6201-10.
  27. Ariotti S, Beltman JB, Chodaczek G, Hoekstra ME, van Beek AE, Gomez-Eerland R, Ritsma L, van Rheenen J, Marée AF, Zal T, de Boer RJ, Haanen JB, Schumacher TN. Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells continuously patrol skin epithelia to quickly recognize local antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012; 109(48):19739-44.
  28. Koltsova EK, Garcia Z, Chodaczek G, Landau M, McArdle S, Scott SR, von Vietinghoff S, Galkina E, Miller YI, Acton ST, Ley K. Dynamic T cell-APC interactions sustain chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(9):3114-26.
  29. Chodaczek G, Papanna V, Zal MA, Zal T. Body-barrier surveillance by epidermal γδ Nat Immunol. 2012; 13(3):272-82.
  30. Zal T, Chodaczek G. Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment. Semin Immunopathol. 2010; 32(3):305-17.
  31. Chodaczek G, Bacsi A, Dharajiya N, Sur S, Hazra TK, Boldogh I. Ragweed pollen-mediated IgE-independent release of biogenic amines from mast cells via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. Mol Immunol. 2009; 46(13):2505-14.
  32. Chodaczek G, Zimecki M, Lukasiewicz J, Lugowski C. Lactoferrin-monophosphoryl lipid a complex enhances immunity of mice to Plesiomonas shigelloides CNCTC 138/92. Acta Biochim Pol. 2008; 55(1):91-6.
  33. Bacsi A, Chodaczek G, Hazra TK, Konkel D, Boldogh I. Increased ROS generation in subsets of OGG1 knockout fibroblast cells. Mech Ageing Dev. 2007; 128(11-12):637-49.
  34. Zimecki M, Kocieba M, Chodaczek G, Houszka M, Kruzel M. Lactoferrin Ameliorates Clinical Symptoms of Experimental Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats. J Neuroimmunol, 2007; 182(1-2):160-6
  35. Chodaczek G, Zimecki M, Lukasiewicz J, Lugowski C. A complex of lactoferrin with monophosphoryl lipid A is an efficient adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl). 2006; 195(4):207-16.
  36. Books
    McArdle S, Koltsova E, Chodaczek G, Ley K. Live Cell Multiphoton Microscopy of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Mouse Aortas. In: Cardiovascular Imaging. Arterial and Aortic Valve Inflammation and Calcification, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 155-170.


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Posted by abachmatiuk, Posted on 08.10.2015